Спирулина

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Спирулина

#1

Сообщение Д.С. » 05 окт 2016, 06:50

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Abstract
Aim:


The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats.

Materials and Methods:

Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks.

Results:

At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations.

Conclusion:

S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats.

KEY WORDS: Diabetes, fructose, inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, Spirulina
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#2

Сообщение Д.С. » 05 окт 2016, 06:53

DISCUSSION
Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effects of fructose on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism [38]. In the present study, fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance accompanied with hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-IR. Therefore, it is suggested that insulin resistance has been developed in these animals. This would closely reflect the natural history and metabolic characteristics of human diabetes, and it is further sensitive to pharmacological testing [2]. Long term fructose feeding has been demonstrated to induce diabetes associated with insulin resistance in experimental animals [38-41]. The fructose-induced insulin resistance may be linked to alteration of insulin signaling. In this context, high fructose feeding has been reported to decrease insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscles [42]. In addition, fructose-induced hyperlipidemia [43] and fat deposition [44] may generate lipid-derived metabolites which reduce insulin signaling via increasing serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 [45]. Oral supplementation of S. versicolor extract markedly reduced blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. Although the anti-hyperglycemic effect of different Spirulina species has been previously reported, studies demonstrating the anti-diabetic efficacy of S. versicolor are scarce. In this context, Mani et al. [46] showed a significant decrease in the fasting blood sugar level of patients received 2 g/day Spirulina for 21 days, and Layam et al. [47] proved the same effect in diabetic rats treated with 15 mg/kg Spirulina for 45 days. The hypoglycemic effect of Spirulina could perhaps attributed to its high fiber content that diminish glucose absorption [48], or to the possible action of peptides generated by the digestion of Spirulina proteins [49].

Insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes is also associated with hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis [50]. Fructose-fed rats in the present investigation exhibited hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The fructose-induced hyperlipidemia may be attributed to the increased de novo hepatic lipogenesis through providing large amounts of hepatic triose-phosphate for fatty acid synthesis [14]. In addition, fructose increases the expression of key lipogenic enzymes and induces the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c which is the principal inducer of hepatic lipogenesis [51,52]. Moreover, fructose has been demonstrated to activate carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), leading to up-regulated expression of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase [53]. Activation of ChREBP may be attributed to the fructose-induced expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and intermediary substrates of the hexose-monophosphate shunt [54].
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The elevated triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the fructose-induced diabetic rats represent atherogenic lipid profile. The recorded values of atherogenic indices in the present study showed the bad impact of fructose-induced dyslipidemia on the cardiovascular system. These findings were confirmed by the elevated serum levels of AST, CK-MB, and LDH. Treatment of the diabetic rats with S. versicolor extract significantly ameliorated the altered lipid profile and atherogenic indices. Reduction of these indices in treated fructose-fed rats strongly supported the notion that dietary supplementation with S. versicolor may reduce the risk of developing heart diseases. These findings were further confirmed by the significantly decreased serum activities of the cardiac markers, CK-MB, LDH and AST, in S. versicolor treated fructose-fed rats. The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Spirulina sp. have been demonstrated in animal [55,56] and human studies [57-59].

The beneficial effects of S. versicolor extract in fructose-induced diabetic rats might be explained, at least in part, through its ability to increase serum adiponectin levels. Serum level of adiponectin is in agreement with insulin sensitivity and its reduced levels are associated with insulin resistance [60]. Adiponectin regulates glucose metabolism [61], increases muscle fat oxidation and glucose transport mediated [62], inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis [63] and activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-a leading to decreased triglyceride content in skeletal muscles and liver [64]. We also assume that suppression of the release of TNF-α following S. versicolor administration could be a direct result of increased serum adiponectin levels. Adiponectin is well known to inhibit the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in various tissues [65]. TNF-α diminishes the ability of insulin to stimulate peripheral glucose uptake and to suppress hepatic glucose production [66], and increases circulating free fatty acids; thus contributes to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance [67]. In the present study, treatment of the fructose-induced diabetic rats with S. versicolor markedly decreased serum levels of TNF-α, confirming its anti-inflammatory efficacy.

Oxidative stress has been implicated in fructose-induced insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes in rats [13]. Oxidative stress can cause oxidation and damage to many cellular components such as DNA, lipids and proteins [68]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes could react with polyunsaturated fatty acids leading to lipid peroxidation [69]. In addition, high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline in endogenous antioxidants can lead to damage of cellular organelles, and development of insulin resistance [70]. Hence, it was recommended by Mahmoud et al. [2] that therapy with antioxidants represents a useful pharmacologic overture to the management of diabetes. The present findings showed significant elevation in lipid peroxidation levels in liver, kidney and heart of fructose-administered rats. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract significantly decreased lipid peroxidation levels, reflecting its radical scavenging property.

In contrary, GSH and the antioxidant enzymatic defenses showed a simultaneous decrease in the liver, kidney and heart of fructose-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant defenses are known to decrease under hyperglycemia [71] and oxidative stress [72]. Treatment of diabetic rats with S. versicolor significantly increased levels of GSH and activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx. GSH is an endogenous antioxidant that protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage by reacting with oxidants or as a substrate for GPx. SOD and GPx provide a defense system against ROS-induced cellular damage [73]. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina and their constituents has been previously demonstrated. Ahmed et al. [74] reported that S. versicolor extract protected against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through potentiating the antioxidant defense system.

Several studies have reported the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory efficacies of Spirulina and its extracts, suggesting the beneficial effects of Spirulina in managing insulin resistance and diabetes. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Spirulina Sp. could be attributed to its active constituents. Spirulina contains a relative high concentration of β-carotene, provitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phycocyanin [75]. Phycocyanin has the ability to scavenge free radicals, decrease nitrite production, suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and inhibit liver microsomal lipid peroxidation. In addition, phycocyanin has been reported to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine formation, suppress cyclooxygeanase-2 expression and decrease prostaglandin E2 production [76-78]. Another constituent, β-carotene, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [79,80].

CONCLUSION
The current findings provide new information on the antidiabetic mechanism of S. versicolor in fructose-fed rats. High fructose feeding induces insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Oral administration of S. versicolor ameliorates insulin sensitivity, increases serum adiponectin, and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. Our findings suggest that S. versicolor extract could be used as a dietary supplement in diabetes management, pending further studies to trace out its exact mechanistic pathways.
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#3

Сообщение Д.С. » 05 окт 2016, 07:24

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What if consuming a tablespoon or two per day of a simple food could drastically lower your chances of developing cancer, heart disease, or stroke, or of contracting a life-threatening virus such as HIV?

Would your interest be piqued?

There is a unique freshwater plant that has been of enormous interest to nutritional scientists over the past decade, and it shows promise for doing all of the above—and then some. It's one of the most nutrient-packed dynamos of the superfood world.

This simple food is spirulina.

Spirulina and Your Eyes

As the population ages, the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is on the rise. ARMD is the deterioration of your macula (the region in your eye that controls acute vision), which typically occurs later in life. ARMD is the leading cause of blindness today.

Your eyes' macular membranes contain several carotenoid pigments called xanthophylls—lutein, zeaxanthin, and possibly astaxanthin, if you're getting it as part of your diet. These special pigments help protect your eyes from damage8 by slowing down ultraviolet-induced oxidation of lipid membranes, thereby helping prevent degeneration of your macula.

Additionally, xanthophylls may be effective in preventing cataracts. Spirulina provides 3,750 to 6,000 mcg zeaxanthin per serving size (3 grams).9 Eggs are another excellent source of both lutein and zeaxanthin (200 mcg zeaxanthin per yolk). Astaxanthin is also another marine-based nutrient that is in the carotenoid family and is also a potent preventor of ARMD.

Spirulina and Type 2 Diabetes


Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic in the Western world today. It is really a cluster of related pathologies, including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Spirulina has been shown to benefit diabetics in the following ways:

Reducing systemic inflammation. (Insulin resistance has come to be associated with a state of systemic low-grade inflammation.)

Favorably altering your lipid profile by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing HDL.
Improving vasodilation in those who are obese as a result of high fructose diets (which has benefits for diabetics, as well as for those with hypertension and cardiovascular disease).

Spirulina and Your Cardiovascular Health

Diabetes and cardiovascular health are intimately connected, so it's no surprise that spirulina shows great potential for people with cardiovascular disease, in terms of creating better lipid profiles, controlling hypertension, and increasing blood vessel elasticity. Diabetic patients given 2 grams per day of spirulina showed improved glycosylated hemoglobin and better lipid profiles in this 2001 study.10 And in this study of the Mexican population,11 4.5 grams per day of spirulina significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels and total cholesterol, boosted HDL, and reduced blood pressure in test subjects.

It is thought that the lipid action of spirulina may be due to its phycocyanin content, which inhibits pancreatic lipase activity, and this in turn causes higher excretion of triglycerides through your feces.

In one animal study,12 spirulina prevented hypertension and vasoconstriction in rats fed fructose-rich diets, but rats fed fructose-rich diets without spirulina had those adverse health effects. Hamsters consuming spirulina were protected from developing atherosclerosis in this 2007 study.13

Spirulina and Your Liver

The accumulation of fats in your liver is closely associated with metabolic syndrome and strongly raises your risk for dying from cardiovascular disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America and notoriously difficult to treat, at least with traditional medical measures.

Animal studies suggest spirulina can protect your liver, probably as a result of its high antioxidant properties and its ability to synthesize or release nitric oxide. Studies show that spirulina does the following for your liver:14

Prevents the buildup of triglycerides in your liver
Inhibits lipid peroxidation
Reduces liver inflammation
Protects your liver from damage by heavy metals, like lead and mercury

Spirulina and Your Brain

The third leading cause of death in the U.S. is stroke. Diets high in antioxidants have been shown to lower your risk for stroke. Two studies (one in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,15 the other in the British Journal of Nutrition16) showed that Spirulina reduces platelet aggregation, which plays an important role in vascular diseases by reducing your risk for thromboembolism.

In another study,17 three antioxidant-rich diets (blueberries, spinach, and spirulina) were compared for their neuroprotective effects. Spirulina was found to have the highest neuroprotective effect, possibly due to its ability to squelch free radicals and reduce inflammation.

And in an Oregon State University study18 of rats that had induced strokes, the group fed spirulina showed brains lesions that were 75 percent smaller than those in control groups.

Oxidative stress is one major source of inflammation, and in your brain, it can result in loss of dopamine neurons and lead to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

An enzyme complex called NADPH oxidase has been shown to play a role in these diseases, and the phycocyanin in spirulina can suppress NADPH oxidase, lowering your risk for these age-related brain diseases. (I will go into this further in the next section.)

In animal studies,19 diets enriched with spirulina were found to reverse the inflammation that can lead to diminished neurogenesis (production of new neurons), which is another factor in degenerative diseases of the brain. Bob Capelli, of Cyanotech Corporation said:20

"Spirulina has long been associated with immune building and anti-viral properties, eye and brain health and cardiovascular health, but we now see that spirulina also has anti-inflammatory properties through this research on one of the principal constituents in spirulina, phycocyanin. This study isolates the mechanism of action for phycocyanin as an anti-inflammatory."

Let's look a little more at the antioxidant properties of spirulina—in particular, its special pigmented component, phycocyanobilin.

The Spirulina-Bilirubin Connection

Phycocyanobilin contained in spirulina is a close chemical relative of bilirubin. In mammalian cells, phycocyanobilin is converted into phycocyanorubin, a compound nearly identical to bilirubin. Bilirubin is the chemical responsible for the yellow color of bruises, urine, and jaundice and occurs as a breakdown product of your red blood cells (heme). When a newborn baby gets jaundice, he is placed under "bili lights" in the hospital nursery to prevent brain damage (kernicterus), if his bilirubin levels become too high. The lights break down the bilirubin so it can be excreted.
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But bilirubin, at appropriate levels, has a strong free radial scavenging effect.

Until recently, scientists were not aware that bilirubin may actually have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and atheroprotective properties—and there is a growing body of scientific and clinical evidence to support this. From an evolutionary/biological perspective, it makes sense that nature would have created a way for your body to break down heme,21 which can be toxic if it accumulates.

The way bilirubin is thought to provide these health benefits is through its ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase, a metabolic enzyme that is activated in a large number of pathological conditions and generates a great deal of oxidative stress in your body. In fact, NADPH overactivity appears to play a significant role in a wide range of adverse health conditions, including but not limited to the following:

Vascular diseases and vascular complications of other diseases (diabetes, kidney failure, blindness, heart disease, etc.)
Insulin resistance
Neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
Many human cancers
Glaucoma
Pulmonary fibrosis
Erectile dysfunction
NADPH seems to be a chemical that can be helpful or harmful, depending on how much of it is circulating at the time, so it needs to be carefully regulated by your body. For example, NADPH oxidase plays a key role in helping your immune system fight bacteria and helps your T-cells to function properly.

It follows then that preventing many chronic diseases would require finding a means of inhibiting or modulating NADPH oxidase.

Bilirubin is now believed to assist with this modulating effect.

People with Gilbert Syndrome comprise 5-10% of the population and illustrate this phenomenon very nicely—they are genetically predisposed to chronically elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin. These individuals, having two to three times as much bilirubin as the rest of us, enjoy a greatly reduced risk for coronary artery disease, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis, and these protections are thought to be related to their high bilirubin levels.22 I happen to be one of those with Gilbert's and did not realize until reviewing the research for this article that my elevated bilirubin levels were actually a major benefit.

Since phycocyanobilin is a very close relative of bilirubin—and spirulina is a great source of phycocyanobilin—spirulina has enormous clinical potential due to its NADPH oxidase inhibiting effect.23 This is why phycocyanobilin has been the focus of a large amount of research of late. Phycobilin extracts have been shown to inhibit NADPH oxidase activity in human aortic endothelium, aortic smooth muscle, and renal cell cultures. And bilirubin protects against diabetic nephropathy via downregulation of NADPH oxidase in rats.
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Спирулина

#4

Сообщение Tatiana » 05 окт 2016, 17:45

Так всё хорошо описали про спирулину, а вот про хлореллу ни слова. А обычно они идут в паре и вместе добавляют друг друга. Спирулина хороший источник протеинов, содержит фикоцианин достаточно эффективный антиканцероген (пигмент, который придает голубую окраску). А хлорелла лучший источник хлорофилла, хорошо чистит и детокс эффект. Соотношение спирулины к хдорелле 2 к 1. Начинать надо постепенно с 3 г хлореллы и постепенно увеличивать. Но все зависит от ситуации, например, небольшие дозы могут "растрясти" токсины, а большие помогут и вывести. Т.е. небольшие дозы могут вызвать побочные эффекты детоксикации, а высокие дозы снимают эту побочку. Но на заметку мужчинам, хлорелла богата железом. Одно время хотела заказывать эту парочку, но почитав, что это такая гадость при употреблении :bad: (пахнет тиной), не рискнула. :biggrin:
Если кто-то употребляет, поделитесь впечатлениями.
Каждый человек по-своему прав, а по-моему - нет. :blum1:
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#5

Сообщение Camel1000 » 05 окт 2016, 17:57

Tatiana писал(а): хлорелла богата железом.
Никто, кстати, не пробовал принимать при железодефицитных анемиях? Интересно, насколько эффективно?
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#6

Сообщение Д.С. » 05 окт 2016, 18:38

Tatiana писал(а): а вот про хлореллу ни слова
На всё времени не хватает ye17
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#7

Сообщение Д.С. » 05 окт 2016, 18:39

Camel1000 писал(а):
Tatiana писал(а): хлорелла богата железом.
Никто, кстати, не пробовал принимать при железодефицитных анемиях? Интересно, насколько эффективно?
Солнце эффективнее.
Сам в шоке. db3*
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#8

Сообщение Camel1000 » 06 окт 2016, 01:17

Д.С. писал(а): Солнце эффективнее.
Это как?
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#9

Сообщение Д.С. » 07 окт 2016, 05:50

Camel1000 писал(а):
Д.С. писал(а): Солнце эффективнее.
Это как?
У Круза поищи... ye15 ye17 , он же солнцепоклонник давно.
\\его выводы - большинство сбоев - из-за недостатка солнечного света.
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#10

Сообщение Camel1000 » 07 окт 2016, 10:37

Д.С. писал(а):
Camel1000 писал(а):
Д.С. писал(а): Солнце эффективнее.
Это как?
У Круза поищи... ye15 ye17 , он же солнцепоклонник давно.
\\его выводы - большинство сбоев - из-за недостатка солнечного света.
Посмотрю... хотя уже гложет мысль, как же это столько негров в Африке болеет.... или, например, эпидемия ожирения на Папуа и вообще в Океании... ;)
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Спирулина

#11

Сообщение Joker » 07 окт 2016, 10:53

Camel1000 писал(а): хотя уже гложет мысль, как же это столько негров в Африке болеет.... или, например, эпидемия ожирения на Папуа и вообще в Океании... ;)

А на Крайнем Севере все должны уже протянуть ласты.... ujas
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#12

Сообщение Tatiana » 07 окт 2016, 10:53

Д.С. писал(а): его выводы - большинство сбоев - из-за недостатка солнечного света.
А я вот, что-то не совсем понимаю связь с солнцем. ye17
Спирулина это очень хороший источник протеинов, в ней даже в 12 раз больше протеинов, чем в говядине и ГЛА (гамма-линоленовая кислота) очень хороша и важна для сердца и мозга. И доза употребления спирулины зависит от состояния здоровья и желания. Атлеты, как правило, употребляют большие дозы. Вообще, спирулина это ЕДА. bv1
Каждый человек по-своему прав, а по-моему - нет. :blum1:
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#13

Сообщение Joker » 07 окт 2016, 11:02

Tatiana писал(а): Спирулина это очень хороший источник протеинов, в ней даже в 12 раз больше протеинов, чем в говядине


Тань, где ты такие сведения берешь? ye17

Морские водоросли, спирулина, сырые
1.jpg
Говядина, пастбищная, стрип-стейк, только мясо, сырая

2.jpg
Источник данных: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
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#14

Сообщение Tatiana » 07 окт 2016, 11:23

Lakshmi писал(а): Тань, где ты такие сведения берешь?
Секрет. cb6a6
Просто, когда хотела употреблять её, то попадалась такая инфа. Значит, наврали. Vala_7
Каждый человек по-своему прав, а по-моему - нет. :blum1:
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#15

Сообщение Camel1000 » 07 окт 2016, 12:04

Tatiana писал(а): Просто, когда хотела употреблять её, то попадалась такая инфа
В этой фразе - вся мудрость веков про подобные ситуации! Vala_33
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#16

Сообщение AnnaRoald » 08 окт 2016, 04:00

Tatiana писал(а): Если кто-то употребляет, поделитесь впечатлениями.
Беру спирулину в таблетках. Уже года два. Вот эту У вас нет необходимых прав для просмотра ссылок в этом сообщении..

Принимаю и принимаю. У Бернштейна прочла что необходимо диабетикам
Маленький принц

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